The Effectiveness of the Keyword Method for Receptive and Productive Foreign Vocabulary Learning in the Elderly.
Michael M. Gruneberg, Kate Pascoe
This paper reports on an experiment in which a group of elderly healthy active female subjects were required to learn 20 Spanish vocabulary items using the keyword (Linkword) method of foreign language learning. This involves using a mediator to link an English word to its Spanish target. The present study shows that the keyword method significantly enhances recall of the English word given its Spanish equivalent (receptive learning) and significantly enhances the learning of Spanish equivalents of English words. Contemporary Educational Psychology Volume 21, Issue 1, January 1996, Pages 102–109